Chemistry Class 11 Syllabus 2024
The syllabus consists of nine units: (i) Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry (ii) Structure of Atom (iii) Classification of Elements & Periodicity in Properties (iv) Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure (v) Chemical Thermodynamics (vi) Equilibrium (vii) Redox Reactions (viii) Basic Organic Chemistry (ix) Hydrocarbons.
|1||Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry||7|
|2||Structure of Atom||9|
|3||Classification of Elements & Periodicity in Properties||6|
|4||Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure||7|
|8||Organic Chemistry: Basic Principles & Techniques||11|
Unit 1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry.
Nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton's atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.
Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept and molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula, chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
Unit 2: Structure of Atom
Discovery of Electron, Proton and Neutron, atomic number, isotopes and isobars.
Thomson's model and its limitations. Rutherford's model and its limitations, Bohr's model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie's relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals - Aufbau principle, Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.
Unit 3: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements - atomic radii, ionic radii, inert gas radii, Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valency.
Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.
Unit 4: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond; bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization, involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), Hydrogen bond.
Unit 6: Chemical Thermodynamics
Concepts of System and types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions.
First law of thermodynamics - internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of ΔU and ΔH, Hess's law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution. Second law of Thermodynamics (brief introduction)
Introduction of entropy as a state function, Gibb's energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium.
Third law of thermodynamics (brief introduction).
Unit 7: Equilibrium
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium - Le Chatelier's principle, ionic equilibrium - ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of poly basic acids, acid strength, concept of pH, hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solution, Henderson Equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).
Unit 9: Redox Reaction
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions, in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number, applications of redox reactions.
Unit 12: Organic Chemistry - Basic Principles and Techniques
General introduction, methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.
Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation.
Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions, electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.
Unit 13: Hydrocarbons
Classification of Hydrocarbons
Alkanes - Nomenclature, isomerism, conformation (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
Alkenes - Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikov's addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
Alkynes - Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of - hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature, benzene: resonance, aromaticity, chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution. nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft's alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in monosubstituted benzene. Carcinogenicity and toxicity.